Vacuum Heat Treating

Preventing Eutectic Reactions and Diffusion Bonding in Vacuum Processing

The purpose of this paper is to explain reactions that can occur during a vacuum processing cycle and different methods of preventing these reactions.

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Titanium: A Fascinating History and Future

For all the advances, titanium and its many alloys, has not reached its apex in popularity in the world. Is there any other element that calls to mind the notion of strength quite like titanium?

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Gas Nitriding of Titanium

This preliminary study revealed that the partial pressure of nitrogen when gas nitriding Ti-6Al-4V in a vacuum furnace can have a significant effect on the nitrided case characteristics.

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The Returning Need For the All-Metal Vacuum Furnace Hot Zone and Specific Application Advantages

In this article, we will highlight some of the essential design requirements needed to provide the proper all-metal furnace for these critical applications.

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Using Vacuum Furnaces to Process 3D-Printed Parts

Vacuum heat treating is a crucial step in the additive manufacturing process cycle to meet required part quality specifications.

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Minimizing Titanium Alpha Case During Vacuum Furnace Heat Treating

A presentation by Solar's Don Jordan given at the ASM's Heat Treat 2015 trade show about reducing alpha case on titanium parts when heat treating in a vacuum furnace.

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True Cost of Becoming Aerospace Accredited

A presentation by Solar's Bob Hill given at the FNA 2014 trade show about the True Cost of Becoming an Aerospace Accredited Heat Treater.

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Understanding Emissivity and Thermocouple Test Blocks

A recent process development test relating to carburizing illustrated the need to better understand the effect of surface emissivity and the proper use of dummy thermocouple test blocks. The testing involved carburizing areas of a partially copper plated alloy steel part. The copper plating covered areas of the part that were not to be carburized. Since the configuration of the part made it impossible to place a thermocouple within the part, a dummy test block made of carbon steel with the approximate same cross-section was used for the process thermocouple without proper consideration of the surface condition of the test block. Using the test block as the control, carburizing was initiated at the proper temperature based on the test block having reached that temperature. At the completion of the test, the part was examined for carburizing results and found in the non-copper plated areas, the depth of the carburized case to be shallow. This indicated that the cycle performed did not initially hold the part long enough at the correct temperature prior to carburizing. This resulted in the conclusion that when using dummy test blocks for controlling process times and temperatures, many factors must be considered including surface emissivity.

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Technical Considerations for the Use of Carbon and Carbon Composite Materials for Fixtures and Grids

Advanced material solutions for fixtures, grids and internal furnace components are available today. They are designed to allow for higher processing temperatures, larger loads, increased production rates, energy savings, and lower overall cycle costs.

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